Consumer Guides

Government  Guides

Consumer News

Consumer Guides
Index

Consumer Guides
Home

Non-Partisan Congressional Budget Office CBO
Long-Term Budget Outlook

Submit Government Guide

Submit Article

Submit Press Release

Copywriting Services

Obama Administration
Initiatives

Download the
Stimulus Package

The American Recovery
and Reinvestment Act of 2009


Auctions

Auction Houses

Internet Auctions

Adoption

Adoption Professionals

Adoption Record Access

Single Parent Adoption

Alternative Energy

Biomass

Buying Clean Electricity

Energy Star

Geothermal

Hydrogen Fuel Cells

Hydropower

Solar

Wind Power

Zero Energy Buildings

Energy Star Technology

Energy Star Homes
FAQ's

Presidential Energy Address
April 2005

Computer Buyers Guide

Energy Star

Spectrally Selective
Low-E Glass

Auto

Automobiles

Auto Finance

Auto Insurance

Auto Leasing

Auto Auctions

Hybrids (HEV)

Biology

Human Genome Project

Business

Franchises

Business Transportation
Directory

Presidential Address:
Women's Small Business 
Owners

Investment Capital

Loan Request Documentation

Merchant Account Comparison

Internet Marketing

Cell Phones

Cell Phone Info

Computer

Broadband

Data Centers

E-Commerce Tips

Computers & Energy Star

Wifi Wireless Fidelity

Consumer News Articles

Consumer News Articles

CD Manufacturing Services

Clean Energy Systems

Cosmetic Surgery and Financing

Costopedia

Forklift Batteries

LASIK Procedures and Costs

Organic Baby Furniture

Culture

Hispanic Heritage Month

Customer Service
Profiles

Profile Samples

Digital Photography

Digital Photography
Gov sites - Jobs

Disaster Help

Guide to help
Rebuild Your Home

Drug and Alcohol

Drug and Alcohol Rehabs

Earthquakes

Preparation, Survival

Employment

Interviewing

Accountants & Analysts

Administrative Service Managers

Budget Analysts

Construction Managers

Cost Estimators

Employment Interviewers

Engineering, Science, Computer
Systems Managers

Financial Managers

Job Training Initiative

Purchasers / Buyers

Education

Graduate Degrees

Distance Learning

Types of Colleges

Educational Software
Distributors

Financial

Accept Credit Cards

Actividades Bancarias

Bankruptcy

Capital Access
Grants, Loans

Check 21

Check 21 FAQ

Credit Cards

Currency & Coins

Currency: Buying, Selling
Redeeming

FDIC Insurance

Forex Brokerages Directory:

Merchant Accounts

Merchant Account Services
Costs and Fees

Money & Credit Cards

Payment Processing

Stock Market Basics

Fishing

Fishing Guide

Government Info

Government Grant Info

Global Warming Facts

Homeland Security

Preparing America

U.S. Immigration and Visas   

Health

Hospital Comparison

Health Insurance
HIPPA
Government Health Guides

What is Influenza? (Flu)

Identity Theft

Consumer Confidential: 
The Privacy Story

Law Signed
By President Bush

Insurance

Life Insurance

Long Term Care
 

Jets: Private

Business Aircraft

Cessna

Eclipse 500

Lear

Jewelry

Jewelry Guide

Precious Stones

Machinery

Farm, Food Processing
Packaging

Marriage

Marriage and Health

Marriage and Teen Attitudes

Happy vs. Unhappy
Marriage and Health

Recipe for Happy Marriage

Sleep and Marriage Study

Patents & Trademarks

Patents, Trademarks, Copyrights

Real Estate

Mortgage Modification

100 Q & A's of
Home Buying

Fair Housing Quiz
(HUD)

Financing Energy
Efficient Homes

Home Buying

Home Buying FAQ

Home Buying
Glossary

Home Buying Loans

Home Mortgage
Insurance

Manufactured Homes

Mortgage Refinance

Selling Your Home

Ten Tips For Home Buyers

Sustainable Design:
Energy Efficient Homes

Taxes

Tax Tips

Bush Tax Cut

Technology

Data Centers

Megosearch

Nanotechnology


Time

Correct Time

Travel

Tips For Women
Traveling Alone

U.S. Immigration and Visas

State Department Travel Tips

Other Online Guides

e-Commerce

Shopping  

________
Disclaimer

Contact

 

 

Solar Power Photovoltaics

Source: U.S. Department of Energy

Knowledge of the sun's ability to produce both heat and electricity has led to the invention of several technologies for generating electricity from the sun's energy. These technologies comprise photovoltaic and concentrating solar power (also known as solar thermal electric) systems.

Photovoltaic technologies, like these flat-plate crystalline silicon arrays, can produce electricity even on cloudy days. (Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD))How Photovoltaics Work

Photovoltaic (PV) technologies produce electricity directly from sunlight. When sunlight strikes the semiconductor materials out of which PV technologies are made, a portion of that light is absorbed. If the energy from the absorbed light strikes electrons in the outer shell of an atom, these electrons are freed from their parent atoms. Free electrons can then travel into a circuit in the form of electricity.

The most common PV device available today is made from rigid, crystalline silicon solar cells (although other materials can also be used). About 40 of these cells are typically combined to produce a flat module, and about 10 of these modules are mounted to form a PV array, which can measure up to several meters on a side. PV arrays can be mounted at a fixed angle facing south, or they can be mounted on a tracking device that follows the sun, allowing them to capture the most sunlight over the course of a day.

In addition to PV arrays, flexible sheets of thin-film PV modules, made with various non-crystalline materials, are just now starting to enter the commercial and residential buildings market for use as rooftop shingles. These modules have traditionally been used in consumer electronics.

Thin-film modules are bringing a new look to rooftop PV systems. (Energy Conversion Devices)The performance of a PV technology is measured in terms of its efficiency at turning sunlight into electricity. Only sunlight of certain wavelengths will work efficiently to create electricity, and much of it is reflected or absorbed by the materials that make up the cell. Researchers are working to improve PV module efficiencies while holding down the cost.

How Photovoltaics are Used
Traditionally, PV has been used to power anything from watches and calculators to structures such as individual homes in locations where it is expensive or impossible to send electricity through power lines. Some homeowners now also use PV to supplement the electricity supplied to them from the grid. Our Making Your Own Clean Electricity section provides more information on issues involved with producing your own electricity.

PV systems can be sized to meet both large and small electricity supply applications. An increasing number of power companies are now experimenting with using crystalline silicon PV to meet some of their power needs. Our Buying Clean Electricity section provides information on buying electricity generated from PV and other renewable energy technologies in your state.

Where Photovoltaics are Used
The solar resource across the US is ample for PV systems, because these technologies are able to use both direct and scattered sunlight. However, the amount of power generated by a solar device at a particular site depends on how much of the sun's energy reaches it. Thus, PV systems, like all solar technologies, function most efficiently in the southwestern United States, which receives the greatest amount of solar energy.

Knowledge of the sun's ability to produce both heat and electricity has led to the invention of several technologies for generating electricity from the sun's energy. These technologies comprise photovoltaic and concentrating solar power (also known as solar thermal electric) systems.

How Concentrating Solar Power Technologies Work
Large-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies—parabolic troughs and power towers—focus the sun's heat onto a receiver using reflectors. The receiver collects the sun's heat, which can then be converted into electricity using a steam generator.

Parabolic-trough systems concentrate the sun's energy through long rectangular, curved (U-shaped) reflectors. The reflectors are tilted toward the sun, focusing the sun's energy on a pipe that runs down the center (focal point) of the trough. This heats oil flowing through the pipe. The hot oil then is used to boil water in a conventional steam generator to produce electricity.

A power tower system uses a large field of reflectors to concentrate the sun's energy onto the top of a tower, where it heats a receiver filled with a heat-exchange fluid, such as oil. The heated fluid is then used to generate electricity in a conventional steam generator. Systems using molten salt as the heat-exchange fluid retain heat very efficiently, enabling them to produce electricity up to three hours after the sun has set.

How Concentrating Solar Power Technologies are Used
These technologies are currently in different stages of development.

Troughs have a proven track record as a technology that can function effectively for large-scale power needs (such as those of a power company), and are currently the least expensive way to produce solar electricity. Our Buying Clean Electricity section provides information on buying electricity generated using CSP and other renewable energy technologies in your state.

Power towers have also demonstrated their efficiency in demonstration projects, although they are not yet in use commercially.

Where Concentrating Solar Power Technologies are Used
The amount of power generated by a solar device at a particular site depends on how much of the sun's energy reaches it. Thus, all solar technologies function most efficiently in the southwestern United States, which receives the greatest amount of solar energy. CSP systems, especially, are considered most feasible in the desert Southwest because they rely on the solar energy which hits their reflectors directly (unlike photovoltaic and solar hot water systems, which are able to use both direct and scattered sunlight).

 

 

Buying Clean Electricity

Solar

Geothermal

Wind Power

Biomass

Hydropower

Energy Star

Fuel Cells

Zero Energy Homes

 

 

Google

 

Web www.myconsumerguides.com

Hot Link:

iTunes Gospel Rock Music
Crossbridge - Thy Kingdom Come - Single
Rock version of
the Lord's Prayer
and more..
.

Presence
a unique find...
www.mycrossbridge.org  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

© 2001-2009 MyConsumerGuides.com - Sitemap - Contact

 


Most trusted news site